Measures aiming at protecting low-lying coast and coastal hinterland against flooding caused by the combined effect of storm surge and extreme astronomical tides. Sea defence often consists of dikes or seawalls of some kind, or in the form of artificial dunes.
Sea defence structures are important components that can help create a coastal squeeze, which can result in the loss of coastal habitats and ecosystems with implications for the plants and animals occurring there.
- Mangor, Karsten. 2004. “Shoreline Management Guidelines”. DHI Water and Environment, 294pp.
- Doody, J.P. (2004) 'Coastal squeeze' - an historical perspective. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 10/1-2, 129-138.