Measures aiming at protecting low-lying coast and coastal hinterland against flooding caused by the combined effect of storm surge and extreme astronomical tides. Sea defence often consists of dikes or seawalls of some kind, or in the form of artificial dunes.
Sea defence structures are important components that can help create a coastal squeeze, which can result in the loss of coastal habitats and ecosystems with implications for the plants and animals occurring there.See also the article threats to the coastal zone.
- For more information on the background of coastal protection and protection against different types of erosion, see coastal protection.
- Different protection measures are described in Shore protection, coast protection and sea defence methods.
- Mangor, Karsten. 2004. “Shoreline Management Guidelines”. DHI Water and Environment, 294pp.
- Doody, J.P. (2004) 'Coastal squeeze' - an historical perspective. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 10/1-2, 129-138.