ICZM-Best practice case study in Western Zeelandic-Flanders
The project is located in the south of the Netherlands bordering Belgium (Fig. 1). It is part of the estuary of River Rhine and Schelde. The project region is called Western Zeelandic-Flanders (‘West Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen’). According to Knuijt et al. (2000) the coastal region today can be divided into two different areas. The North Sea coast (from Cadzand to Breskens) and the Westerschelde coast (from Breskens to Hoofdplaat). The conditions on both sides are very different. The North Sea coast is characterized by beaches, dunes, nature reserves and recreation, whereas the Westerschelde coast is formed by dikes and agricultural land. Thus, an intensive versus an extensive touristic area (ibid.).
The problem of the region can be divided into seaward and landward conditions. Concerning seaward conditions, rising seawater level is regarded as main problem (Knuijt et al., 2000). Research from 2003 hold the result that a weak link in the costal defence system is situated between Het Zwin and Breskens (MinVenW, 2003). Concerning landwards conditions, the main problem is seen in the weak development of employment in the sectors of agriculture and tourism (Gebiedscommissie West Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen, 2004).
The main aim of ICZM in Western Zeelandic-Flanders is the “development and enlargement of its natural capital to release an impulse for the tourist-economic sector” (Knuijt et al., 2000). This process should be coupled to a safe coastal protection integrating the most important economic and social concerns (ibid.).
The ICZM process in Western Zeelandic-Flanders can be divided into three phases: development of an ICZM vision, development of sub-projects and execution of coastal projects (Fig. 2).
The first phase (Fig. 2) of ICZM in Western Zeelandic-Flanders started in 2000. A project team leaded by the municipalities of Oostburg and Sluis together with a sounding board of around 40 persons articulated a vision for the coast, which resulted in an ICZM plan for the coast, namely ‘Integrated Coastal Zone Management Western Zeelandic-Flanders’ (‘Integraal Kustzone Beheer West Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen’) (see Knuijt et al., 2000). The document constitutes a legal municipal framework for future coastal development in which coastal protection, environmental and economic enhancements are priority goals. They should be achieved by taking action primarily in the field of coastal safety in combination with recreation and tourism (ibid.). The ICZM plan sets out two main principles. First, a broadening of the coastal zone to provide space for coastal defence and recreation, and second, a zoning of the coast in calm or busy segments in order to support the development of touristic or nature conservation areas (ibid.).
Based on this initial ICZM plan, five coastal sub-plans were developed which constitute the second phase of ICZM in Western Zeelandic-Flanders (Fig. 2). ‘Sustainable Coast Opening’ (‘Duurzame Kustontsluiting‘) is a further development of the main principles of the ICZM vision. It provides four priority areas of the region where several actions such as parking places, dune passages and beach accesses are presented (Knuijt et al., 2002). ‘Naturally Vital’ (‘Gebiedsplan Natuurlijk Vitaal’) is an extensive development plan for executing coastal measures. The plan aims at giving an impulse for the economic sector and enhancing spatial quality such as nature and landscape. It builds the basis for collaboration of administrations and private enterprises (Gebiedscommissie West Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen, 2004). The other remaining three plans (S.A.I.L., Maya, and SustAccess) are embedded in the European INTERREG program (see European Commission, 2006). ‘S.A.I.L.’ (‘Schéma d’Aménagement Intégré du Litoral’) was formed in order to help managing issues affecting the coastlines and communities bordering the Southern North Sea area. The plan for Western Zeelandic-Flanders includes the opening up of the coast to visitors on foot or bike, extended parking facilities, improved accessibility, tourist development of the beachfront, and the broadening of the coastal zone via coast corridors (S.A.I.L., 2003). ‘Maya’ stands for ‘Marina and Yachting in the Lower North Sea, the Channel Area and the Irish Sea’. This plan aims at the construction of a marina at Sluis on the historic location, a lock, and a port of transit at Cadzand and the realisation of a waterway connection between this lock and the marina. The plan provides leads for urban renewal, accentuation of cultural-historical elements, nature development, recreation and tourism, as well as integral water management (Maya, 2005). Western Zeelandic-Flanders also participated in ‘SustAccess’, which stands for ‘Sustainable Accessibility between Hinterlands and Gateways around the North Sea’ (SustAccess, 2006). The major issue of this plan is to decrease the use of cars in the coastal area of the North Sea. Therein new road infrastructure should be developed to separate cars from bicycles (SustAccess, 2005).
In the frame of these five sub-plans a multiplicity of projects were executed in the region (phase three), such as parking places, dune passages, beach accesses, lookout points, information centres or information panels (Fig. 2).
The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of ‘ICZM-Western Zeelandic-Flanders’ (Tab. 1):
- Gebiedscommissie West Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen, 2004. Gebiedsplan Natuurlijk Vitaal, Provincie Zeeland, Middelburg, pp. 143.
- Knuijt, M., Kijne, H., de Jong, H., Stelzer, B., van der Vegt, L. and Voogt, W., 2000. Integraal Kustzone Beheer West Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen, OKRA Landschapsarchitecten, Utrecht, pp. 130.
- MinVenW, 2003. Processplan Zwakke Schakels in de Nederlandse kust, Direct Dutch Publications BV, The Hague, pp. 27.
- European Commission, 2006. Interreg III. Connecting Europeans regions. From http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/interreg3/, visited at 14.11.2007.
- S.A.I.L., 2003. Integrated Coastal Zone Management goes Dutch. SAIL news. Newsletter No.1, pp. 12.
- Maya, 2005. Marina and Yachting in the Lower North Sea, the Channel Area and the Irish Sea. Maya 1. Pilot projects. Sluis an Zee. From http://www.mayanet.org/index.php?url=/maya1/pilot/sluis_aan_zee, visited at 10.11.2007.
- SustAccess, 2006. SustAccess. Bridging Environment and Transport. From http://www.sustaccess.org, visited at 23.10.2007.
- SustAccess, 2005. Improving Connection between Gateways and the Hinterland - New Innovative Regional Transport Development Concepts, Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, pp. 40.
- Lessons learned from ICZM in Belgium, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom
- Analysis of the ICZM process in Belgium
- Analysis of the ICZM process in The Netherlands
- Analysis of the ICZM process in the United Kingdom
- Lessons learned from three ICZM best-practice projects
- ICZM-Best practice case study in the Oder estuary
- ICZM-Best practice case study in the Bay of Luebeck
- Guidelines for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Germany
- The present study was performed within the frame of a Diploma thesis at the Technical University Berlin which was published as ICZM-Odra report no. 44, ISSN 1614-5968 download
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