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Estuarine turbidity maximum
  
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{{Definition|title=Turbidity maximum
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|definition= Convergence zone of suspended sediment transport, where turbidity levels are high due to high suspended sediment concentrations. }}
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==Suspended sediment concentration in the estuarine turbidity maximum==
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The presence of a turbidity maximum is a common feature of many [[#Estuary|estuaries]]. The term turbidity maximum suggests that it corresponds to a particular location in an estuary. In fact, it is a broad zone where concentrations of fine suspended sediment are much higher than in the upstream river or in the adjacent sea, where concentrations of fine suspended sediment are generally below 100 mg/l and often even below 10 mg/l. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the turbidity maximum can be very high, up to several g/l averaged over the water column. A typical example of a turbidity maximum is shown in Fig. 1. The suspended sediment concentration in the turbidity maximum depends on the supply of fine sediments from fluvial and marine sources; erosion of ancient mud deposits can also play a role. The most important factor, however, is the trapping efficiency of the estuary, i.e. the efficiency of hydrodynamic processes to retain fine sediments that have entered the estuary and to prevent their escape to the sea. These processes will be discussed in the next section.
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[[Image:TurbidityMaximumLoireEstuary.jpg|thumb|700px|center|Figure 1: Turbidity maximum in the Loire estuary at low fluvial discharge. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is expressed on g/l. Top panel: Spring tide. Bottom panel: Neap tide. Source: Christine Bertier (2011)<ref name=B> Bertier, C. 2011. Dynamique et suivi du bouchon vaseux dans l’estuaire de la Loire. Séminaire Technique sur le transport sédimentaire: Principes et expériences sur le bassin Ligrien, Vierzon 24 Novembre 2011</ref>.]]
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==Formation of the turbidity maximum==
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The formation of a turbidity maximum is due to hydrodynamic processes that promote upstream (landward) transport of fine suspended sediment. These typically estuarine processes are<ref>Burchard, H. and Baumert, H. 1998. The Formation of Estuarine Turbidity Maxima Due to Density Effects in the Salt Wedge. A Hydrodynamic Process Study. J. Phys. Oceanography 28: 309-321</ref>:
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(1) Tidal asymmetry, generated by the non-linearity of tidal propagation in estuarine channels. This nonlinear tidal propagation results in shorter flood and longer ebb periods, with enhanced maximum flood currents and reduced maximum ebb currents, see [[Tidal asymmetry and tidal basin morphodynamics]]. Due to the strong dependence of sediment resuspension on current strength, the suspended sediment load carried by the flood currents is much higher than the suspended load carried by the ebb currents. This mechanism is sometimes designated by the term 'tidal pumping'.
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[[Image:EbbFloodProfiles.jpg|thumb|350px|left|Figure 2: Schematic representation of along-channel velocity (left) and vertical profiles of salinity (right, relative to dept-averaged value) for maximum flood and ebb flow, representative for observations in Rotterdam Waterway, see [[Estuarine circulation]] Fig. 5. The left figure shows ebb-dominant flow near the water surface and flood-dominant flow in the lower part of the water column. The right figure shows stronger stratification during ebb than during flood.]]
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(2) Estuarine circulation, the residual flow pattern in an estuary induced by the density difference between seawater and river water, see Fig. 2. The residual upstream flow along the bed of the main channel carries a higher load of suspended sediment than the compensating seaward flow near the surface, see [[Estuarine circulation]]. 
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(3) Stratification. Ebb flow in estuaries is typically more stratified than flood flow, mainly as a consequence of convective overturning during flood when saline seawater is advected over less dense estuarine water<ref>Jay, D. A. and Musiak, J. D. 1994. Particle trapping in estuarine tidal flows. J. Geophys. Res. 99: 445–461</ref><ref>Prandle, D. 2004. Salt intrusion in partially mixed estuaries. Est.Coast.Shelf Sci. 59: 385-397</ref><ref>Burchard, H. and Schuttelaars, H.H. (2012) Analysis of Tidal Straining as Driver for Estuarine Circulation in Well-Mixed Estuaries. J. Phys. Oceanograph. 42: 261-271</ref>. This implies that estuarine outflow is mainly concentrated in the upper layer of the water column, with lower suspended sediment concentrations than the vertical average. Flood flow therefore carries more sediment than ebb flow. 
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Further upstream in the estuary the residual flow is dominated by river discharge. Therefore a convergence zone of suspended sediment transport exists where downstream suspended transport by river flow is of the same order as the upstream suspended sediment transport by estuarine circulation and tidal asymmetry. In this convergence zone fine suspended sediment accumulates and forms a turbidity maximum. The convergence zone is generally situated around the location of maximum seawater intrusion. In estuaries with strong tides, tidal asymmetry is the major mechanism for upstream sediment transport<ref>Brenon, I. and LeHir, P. 1999. Modelling the Turbidity Maximum in the Seine Estuary (France): Identification of Formation Processes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (1999) 49, 525–544</ref><ref>Scully, M.E. and Friedrichs, C.T. 2007. Sediment pumping by tidal asymmetry in a partially mixed estuary. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, c07028
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York river (USA)</ref><ref>Toublanc, F., Brenon, I. and Coulombier, T. 2016. Formation and structure of the turbidity maximum in the macrotidal Charente estuary (France): Influence of fluvial and tidal forcing. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 169: 1-14</ref><ref name=MS>Van Maanen, B. and Sottolichio, A. 2018. Hydro- and sediment dynamics in the Gironde estuary (France): Sensitivity to seasonal variations in river inflow and sea level rise. Continental Shelf Research 165: 37–50</ref>. In these cases, the turbidity maximum is shifted in upstream direction relative to the location of maximum seawater intrusion. In microtidal estuaries, the turbidity maximum is mainly due to estuarine circulation and stratifcation processes; the location of the turbidity maximum is determined by the seawater intrusion length<ref>Restrepo, J.C., Schrottke, K., Traini, C., Bartholomae, A., Ospino, S., Ortíz, J.C., Otero, L. and Orejarena, A. 2018. Estuarine and sediment dynamics in a microtidal tropical estuary of high fluvial discharge: Magdalena River (Colombia, South America). Marine Geology 398: 86–98</ref>.
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[[Image:FluidMudLoireEstuary.jpg|thumb|400px|left|Figure 3: Fluid mud in the Loire estuary during neap tide and low fluvial discharge. Source: Christine Bertier (2011)<ref name=B></ref>. ]]
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Suspended sediment settles to the channel bed during periods of slack water, especially in the neap tidal phase of the fortnightly tidal cycle. [[Dynamics of mud transport#Flocculation|Flocculation]] plays an important role as an accelerator of the sedimentation process<ref>Guo, C., He, Q., Guo, L. and Winterwerp, J.C. 2017. A study of in-situ sediment flocculation in the turbidity maxima of the Yangtze Estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 191: 1-9</ref>. In estuaries with a strong turbidity maximum, a fluid mud layer forms on the channel bed when the fine suspended sediment concentration exceeds a few tens of g/l <ref name=W>Winterwerp, J.C. 2016 Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River: indications for a regime shift in response to channel deepening. Ocean Dynamics 61: 203–215</ref> (see Fig. 3 and [[Dynamics of mud transport]]). Under spring tidal conditions, the fluid mud layer is (partly) resuspended and contributes to high turbidity levels, as illustrated in Fig. 1. Fine sediments that have been mixed into the near surface flow can escape from the turbidity maximum if the river discharge is sufficiently high.
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==Tidal flat accretion==
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[[Image:LandVanSaeftinghe.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Figure 4: View of the Land van Saeftinghe, a large salt marsh adjacent to the turbidity maximum of the Westerschelde estuary. The marsh level is close to the highest astronomical tide; flooding occurs only occasionally. Photo credit Anita Eijlers.]]
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Part of the fine sediments of the turbidity maximum settles on the tidal flats and marshes bordering the main estuarine channel. This reduces the concentration of suspended sediment in the turbidity maximum. The turbidity maximum is advected along the estuary with the tide. It therefore covers a wide estuarine zone. [[Tidal flat]]s situated in this zone are subject to fast accretion. The landward part of these tidal flats that are not subject to strong wave action, rapidly grow to a level where flooding only occurs during the highest spring tides <ref>Allen, J.R.L. 2000. Morphodynamics of Holocene salt marshes: a review sketch from the Atlantic and Southern North Sea coasts of Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 1155-1231</ref><ref>Temmerman, S., Govers, G., Meire, P. and Wartel, S. 2003. Modelling long-term tidal marsh growth under changing tidal conditions and suspended sediment concentrations, Scheldt estuary, Belgium. Marine Geology 193: 151-169</ref><ref>French, J. 2006. Tidal marsh sedimentation and resilience to environmental change: Exploratory modelling of tidal, sea-level and sediment supply forcing in predominantly allochthonous systems. Marine Geology 235: 119–136</ref><ref>Deloffre, J., Verney, R., Lafite, R., Lesueur, P., Lesourd, S. and Cundy, A.B. 2007. Sedimentation on intertidal mudflats in the lower part of macrotidal estuaries: Sedimentation rhythms and their preservation. Marine Geology 241:19–32</ref><ref>Boyd, B.M., Sommerfield, C.K., Elsey-Quirk, T. 2017. Hydrogeomorphic influences on salt marsh sediment accumulation and accretion in two estuaries of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast. Marine Geology 383: 132–145</ref>, as illustrated in Fig. 4. The growth process is stimulated by the development of marsh vegetation.  The concentration of suspended sediment in the turbidity maximum greatly increases when it is no longer possible to store fine sediment on the mud flats, because of their elevation or because they are reclaimed <ref>Van Maren, D.S., Oost, A.P., Wang, Z.B. and Vos, P.C. 2016. The effect of land reclamations and sediment extraction on the suspended sediment concentration in the Ems Estuary. Marine Geology 376: 147–157</ref>. Fast siltation also takes place in adjacent harbour basins that are situated in the high turbidity zone (see [[Siltation in harbors and fairways]]).
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==Influence of river discharge==
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[[Image:DischargeLoireGirondeTurbidityMax.jpg|thumb|400px|left|Figure 5: Position of the turbidity maximum in the Loire and Gironde estuaries for different fluvial discharges. For the Loire estuary, the mean fluvial discharge <math>\small Q_R=825 m^3/s</math> and for the Gironde, <math>\small Q_R=1000 m^3/s</math>. The turbidity maximum is further displaced seawards in the Loire estuary than in the Gironde estuary when the fluvial discharge equals twice the mean discharge. The Gironde estuary is therefore a more efficient sediment trap than the Loire estuary. The turbidity in the Gironde estuary is higher than in the Loire estuary. Data from Sottolichio and Castaing (1999) <ref>Sottolichio, A. and Castaing, P. 1999. A synthesis on seasonal dynamics of highly concentrated structures in the Gironde estuary. Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Earth Planet. Sci. 329: 795–800</ref> and Christine Bertier (2011)<ref name=B></ref>).]]
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The turbidity maximum can be flushed out of the estuary when the river discharge is sufficiently high<ref>Jalon-Rojas, I., Schmidt, S., Sottolichio, A. and Bertier, C. 2016. Tracking the turbidity maximumzone in  the Loire Estuary (France)based on a long-term, high-resolution and high-frequency monitoring network. Continental Shelf Research 117: 1–11</ref><ref>Pritchard, M. and Green, M. 2017. Trapping and episodic flushing of suspended sediment from a tidal river. Continental Shelf Research 143: 286–294</ref>, see Fig. 5. This happens under spring tidal conditions, if the suspended sediment transport by river flow dominates transport by estuarine circulation and tidal asymmetry over the entire estuary <ref name=MS></ref>. In estuaries with such high peak discharges, the turbidity maximum does not become as high as in estuaries where the peak discharges are lower.
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==Infill of estuaries==
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If the peak discharge is not sufficient to flush the turbidity maximum to the open sea, most of the fine sediments will remain in the estuarine mouth zone. When the river discharge decreases, these sediments are re-imported into the estuary. The estuary then acts as trap for fine sediments. In this case a gradual infill of the estuary takes place. A mud bed forms when the fine sediment concentration exceeds 1000 g/l  (see [[Dynamics of mud transport]]). The infill stops when the estuarine depth and width are reduced up to a point where peak river discharges can flush the fine sediments far enough into the sea. In this way the estuary evolves towards a dynamic equilibrium.
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==Influence of dredging==
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Many estuaries are dredged for navigation purposes. Channel dredging opposes the evolution towards an equilibrium state by strengthening estuarine circulation and reducing the fluvial flushing efficiency. The enhanced fine sediment trapping leads to very high concentrations in the turbidity maximum and requires a corresponding increase of maintenance dredging <ref name=W></ref>. A strong increase of the turbidity maxima in several estuaries (e.g., Ems, Loire) has been observed in several estuaries after deepening of the estuarine entrance channel<ref>Van Maren, D.S., Kessel, T., Cronin, K. and Sittoni, L. 2015. The impact of channel deepening and dredging on estuarine sediment concentration. Continental Shelf Research 95: 1–14</ref>. The observed strong increase in turbidity is also related to reclamation of tidal flats<ref>Winterwerp, J., Wang, Z.B., van Braeckel, A., Holland, G. and Koesters, F. 2013. Man-induced regime shifts in small estuaries - II: A comparison of rivers. Ocean Dynamics 63: 1293-1306</ref>.
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==Environmental impact==     
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High turbidity prevents sunlight from penetrating into the water column and therefore suppresses oxygen production by fytoplankton. At the same time, oxygen is consumed by mineralization of the degradable organic components of the fine sediments trapped in the turbidity maximum, as a result of bacterial activity or chemical oxidation <ref>Morris, A. W., Loring, D. H., Bate, A. J., Howland, R. J. M., Mantoura, R.F. C. and Woodward, E. M. S. 1982. Particle dynamics, particulate carbon and the oxygen minimum in an estuary. Oceanol. Acta 5: 349-353</ref><ref>Uncles, R.J., Joint, I. & Stephens, J.A. 1998. Transport and retention of suspended particulate matter and bacteria in the Humber-Ouse Estuary, United Kingdom, and their relationship to hypoxia and anoxia. Estuaries 21: 597–612</ref><ref name=E>Etcheber, H., Taillez, A., Abril, G., Garnier, J.A., Servais, P., Moatar, F. and Commarieu, M-V. 2007. Particulate organic carbon in the estuarine turbidity maxima of the Gironde, Loire and Seine estuaries: origin and lability. Hydrobiologia 588: 245–259</ref>. This is illustrated in Fig. 6 for the Loire estuary. High turbidity causes oxygen depletion and mortality of estuarine organisms. This is a serious problem in many estuaries, particularly during warm dry periods, when rapid mineralization occurs while mixing in the water column is suppressed due to density stratification (both salinity and fine sediment concentrations contribute to stratification at small river discharge <ref>Winterwerp, J.C. 2006. Stratification effects by fine suspended sediment at low, medium, and very high concentrations. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, c05012</ref>).
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[[Image:LoireOxygen.jpg|thumb|600px|center|Figure 6: Dissolved oxygen concentration in the Loire estuary at Cordemais (20 km from the mouth) for the years 2007-2011. Each year severe oxygen depletion occurs during the summer months. Oxygen depletion in the Loire estuary is stronger than in the more turbid Gironde estuary due to the larger fraction of degradable organic matter<ref name=E></ref>. Source: Syvel Bulletin 2 (2011), GIP Loire Estuary. ]]
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==References==
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<references/>

Revision as of 16:35, 10 February 2020

Estuarine turbidity maximum


Definition of Turbidity maximum:
Convergence zone of suspended sediment transport, where turbidity levels are high due to high suspended sediment concentrations.
This is the common definition for Turbidity maximum, other definitions can be discussed in the article


Suspended sediment concentration in the estuarine turbidity maximum

The presence of a turbidity maximum is a common feature of many estuaries. The term turbidity maximum suggests that it corresponds to a particular location in an estuary. In fact, it is a broad zone where concentrations of fine suspended sediment are much higher than in the upstream river or in the adjacent sea, where concentrations of fine suspended sediment are generally below 100 mg/l and often even below 10 mg/l. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the turbidity maximum can be very high, up to several g/l averaged over the water column. A typical example of a turbidity maximum is shown in Fig. 1. The suspended sediment concentration in the turbidity maximum depends on the supply of fine sediments from fluvial and marine sources; erosion of ancient mud deposits can also play a role. The most important factor, however, is the trapping efficiency of the estuary, i.e. the efficiency of hydrodynamic processes to retain fine sediments that have entered the estuary and to prevent their escape to the sea. These processes will be discussed in the next section.


Figure 1: Turbidity maximum in the Loire estuary at low fluvial discharge. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is expressed on g/l. Top panel: Spring tide. Bottom panel: Neap tide. Source: Christine Bertier (2011)[1].


Formation of the turbidity maximum

The formation of a turbidity maximum is due to hydrodynamic processes that promote upstream (landward) transport of fine suspended sediment. These typically estuarine processes are[2]:

(1) Tidal asymmetry, generated by the non-linearity of tidal propagation in estuarine channels. This nonlinear tidal propagation results in shorter flood and longer ebb periods, with enhanced maximum flood currents and reduced maximum ebb currents, see Tidal asymmetry and tidal basin morphodynamics. Due to the strong dependence of sediment resuspension on current strength, the suspended sediment load carried by the flood currents is much higher than the suspended load carried by the ebb currents. This mechanism is sometimes designated by the term 'tidal pumping'.

Figure 2: Schematic representation of along-channel velocity (left) and vertical profiles of salinity (right, relative to dept-averaged value) for maximum flood and ebb flow, representative for observations in Rotterdam Waterway, see Estuarine circulation Fig. 5. The left figure shows ebb-dominant flow near the water surface and flood-dominant flow in the lower part of the water column. The right figure shows stronger stratification during ebb than during flood.

(2) Estuarine circulation, the residual flow pattern in an estuary induced by the density difference between seawater and river water, see Fig. 2. The residual upstream flow along the bed of the main channel carries a higher load of suspended sediment than the compensating seaward flow near the surface, see Estuarine circulation.

(3) Stratification. Ebb flow in estuaries is typically more stratified than flood flow, mainly as a consequence of convective overturning during flood when saline seawater is advected over less dense estuarine water[3][4][5]. This implies that estuarine outflow is mainly concentrated in the upper layer of the water column, with lower suspended sediment concentrations than the vertical average. Flood flow therefore carries more sediment than ebb flow.


Further upstream in the estuary the residual flow is dominated by river discharge. Therefore a convergence zone of suspended sediment transport exists where downstream suspended transport by river flow is of the same order as the upstream suspended sediment transport by estuarine circulation and tidal asymmetry. In this convergence zone fine suspended sediment accumulates and forms a turbidity maximum. The convergence zone is generally situated around the location of maximum seawater intrusion. In estuaries with strong tides, tidal asymmetry is the major mechanism for upstream sediment transport[6][7][8][9]. In these cases, the turbidity maximum is shifted in upstream direction relative to the location of maximum seawater intrusion. In microtidal estuaries, the turbidity maximum is mainly due to estuarine circulation and stratifcation processes; the location of the turbidity maximum is determined by the seawater intrusion length[10].

Figure 3: Fluid mud in the Loire estuary during neap tide and low fluvial discharge. Source: Christine Bertier (2011)[1].



Suspended sediment settles to the channel bed during periods of slack water, especially in the neap tidal phase of the fortnightly tidal cycle. Flocculation plays an important role as an accelerator of the sedimentation process[11]. In estuaries with a strong turbidity maximum, a fluid mud layer forms on the channel bed when the fine suspended sediment concentration exceeds a few tens of g/l [12] (see Fig. 3 and Dynamics of mud transport). Under spring tidal conditions, the fluid mud layer is (partly) resuspended and contributes to high turbidity levels, as illustrated in Fig. 1. Fine sediments that have been mixed into the near surface flow can escape from the turbidity maximum if the river discharge is sufficiently high.




Tidal flat accretion

Figure 4: View of the Land van Saeftinghe, a large salt marsh adjacent to the turbidity maximum of the Westerschelde estuary. The marsh level is close to the highest astronomical tide; flooding occurs only occasionally. Photo credit Anita Eijlers.



Part of the fine sediments of the turbidity maximum settles on the tidal flats and marshes bordering the main estuarine channel. This reduces the concentration of suspended sediment in the turbidity maximum. The turbidity maximum is advected along the estuary with the tide. It therefore covers a wide estuarine zone. Tidal flats situated in this zone are subject to fast accretion. The landward part of these tidal flats that are not subject to strong wave action, rapidly grow to a level where flooding only occurs during the highest spring tides [13][14][15][16][17], as illustrated in Fig. 4. The growth process is stimulated by the development of marsh vegetation. The concentration of suspended sediment in the turbidity maximum greatly increases when it is no longer possible to store fine sediment on the mud flats, because of their elevation or because they are reclaimed [18]. Fast siltation also takes place in adjacent harbour basins that are situated in the high turbidity zone (see Siltation in harbors and fairways).



Influence of river discharge

Figure 5: Position of the turbidity maximum in the Loire and Gironde estuaries for different fluvial discharges. For the Loire estuary, the mean fluvial discharge [math]\small Q_R=825 m^3/s[/math] and for the Gironde, [math]\small Q_R=1000 m^3/s[/math]. The turbidity maximum is further displaced seawards in the Loire estuary than in the Gironde estuary when the fluvial discharge equals twice the mean discharge. The Gironde estuary is therefore a more efficient sediment trap than the Loire estuary. The turbidity in the Gironde estuary is higher than in the Loire estuary. Data from Sottolichio and Castaing (1999) [19] and Christine Bertier (2011)[1]).



The turbidity maximum can be flushed out of the estuary when the river discharge is sufficiently high[20][21], see Fig. 5. This happens under spring tidal conditions, if the suspended sediment transport by river flow dominates transport by estuarine circulation and tidal asymmetry over the entire estuary [9]. In estuaries with such high peak discharges, the turbidity maximum does not become as high as in estuaries where the peak discharges are lower.


Infill of estuaries

If the peak discharge is not sufficient to flush the turbidity maximum to the open sea, most of the fine sediments will remain in the estuarine mouth zone. When the river discharge decreases, these sediments are re-imported into the estuary. The estuary then acts as trap for fine sediments. In this case a gradual infill of the estuary takes place. A mud bed forms when the fine sediment concentration exceeds 1000 g/l (see Dynamics of mud transport). The infill stops when the estuarine depth and width are reduced up to a point where peak river discharges can flush the fine sediments far enough into the sea. In this way the estuary evolves towards a dynamic equilibrium.


Influence of dredging

Many estuaries are dredged for navigation purposes. Channel dredging opposes the evolution towards an equilibrium state by strengthening estuarine circulation and reducing the fluvial flushing efficiency. The enhanced fine sediment trapping leads to very high concentrations in the turbidity maximum and requires a corresponding increase of maintenance dredging [12]. A strong increase of the turbidity maxima in several estuaries (e.g., Ems, Loire) has been observed in several estuaries after deepening of the estuarine entrance channel[22]. The observed strong increase in turbidity is also related to reclamation of tidal flats[23].


Environmental impact

High turbidity prevents sunlight from penetrating into the water column and therefore suppresses oxygen production by fytoplankton. At the same time, oxygen is consumed by mineralization of the degradable organic components of the fine sediments trapped in the turbidity maximum, as a result of bacterial activity or chemical oxidation [24][25][26]. This is illustrated in Fig. 6 for the Loire estuary. High turbidity causes oxygen depletion and mortality of estuarine organisms. This is a serious problem in many estuaries, particularly during warm dry periods, when rapid mineralization occurs while mixing in the water column is suppressed due to density stratification (both salinity and fine sediment concentrations contribute to stratification at small river discharge [27]).

Figure 6: Dissolved oxygen concentration in the Loire estuary at Cordemais (20 km from the mouth) for the years 2007-2011. Each year severe oxygen depletion occurs during the summer months. Oxygen depletion in the Loire estuary is stronger than in the more turbid Gironde estuary due to the larger fraction of degradable organic matter[26]. Source: Syvel Bulletin 2 (2011), GIP Loire Estuary.


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Bertier, C. 2011. Dynamique et suivi du bouchon vaseux dans l’estuaire de la Loire. Séminaire Technique sur le transport sédimentaire: Principes et expériences sur le bassin Ligrien, Vierzon 24 Novembre 2011
  2. Burchard, H. and Baumert, H. 1998. The Formation of Estuarine Turbidity Maxima Due to Density Effects in the Salt Wedge. A Hydrodynamic Process Study. J. Phys. Oceanography 28: 309-321
  3. Jay, D. A. and Musiak, J. D. 1994. Particle trapping in estuarine tidal flows. J. Geophys. Res. 99: 445–461
  4. Prandle, D. 2004. Salt intrusion in partially mixed estuaries. Est.Coast.Shelf Sci. 59: 385-397
  5. Burchard, H. and Schuttelaars, H.H. (2012) Analysis of Tidal Straining as Driver for Estuarine Circulation in Well-Mixed Estuaries. J. Phys. Oceanograph. 42: 261-271
  6. Brenon, I. and LeHir, P. 1999. Modelling the Turbidity Maximum in the Seine Estuary (France): Identification of Formation Processes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (1999) 49, 525–544
  7. Scully, M.E. and Friedrichs, C.T. 2007. Sediment pumping by tidal asymmetry in a partially mixed estuary. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, c07028 York river (USA)
  8. Toublanc, F., Brenon, I. and Coulombier, T. 2016. Formation and structure of the turbidity maximum in the macrotidal Charente estuary (France): Influence of fluvial and tidal forcing. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 169: 1-14
  9. 9.0 9.1 Van Maanen, B. and Sottolichio, A. 2018. Hydro- and sediment dynamics in the Gironde estuary (France): Sensitivity to seasonal variations in river inflow and sea level rise. Continental Shelf Research 165: 37–50
  10. Restrepo, J.C., Schrottke, K., Traini, C., Bartholomae, A., Ospino, S., Ortíz, J.C., Otero, L. and Orejarena, A. 2018. Estuarine and sediment dynamics in a microtidal tropical estuary of high fluvial discharge: Magdalena River (Colombia, South America). Marine Geology 398: 86–98
  11. Guo, C., He, Q., Guo, L. and Winterwerp, J.C. 2017. A study of in-situ sediment flocculation in the turbidity maxima of the Yangtze Estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 191: 1-9
  12. 12.0 12.1 Winterwerp, J.C. 2016 Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River: indications for a regime shift in response to channel deepening. Ocean Dynamics 61: 203–215
  13. Allen, J.R.L. 2000. Morphodynamics of Holocene salt marshes: a review sketch from the Atlantic and Southern North Sea coasts of Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 1155-1231
  14. Temmerman, S., Govers, G., Meire, P. and Wartel, S. 2003. Modelling long-term tidal marsh growth under changing tidal conditions and suspended sediment concentrations, Scheldt estuary, Belgium. Marine Geology 193: 151-169
  15. French, J. 2006. Tidal marsh sedimentation and resilience to environmental change: Exploratory modelling of tidal, sea-level and sediment supply forcing in predominantly allochthonous systems. Marine Geology 235: 119–136
  16. Deloffre, J., Verney, R., Lafite, R., Lesueur, P., Lesourd, S. and Cundy, A.B. 2007. Sedimentation on intertidal mudflats in the lower part of macrotidal estuaries: Sedimentation rhythms and their preservation. Marine Geology 241:19–32
  17. Boyd, B.M., Sommerfield, C.K., Elsey-Quirk, T. 2017. Hydrogeomorphic influences on salt marsh sediment accumulation and accretion in two estuaries of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast. Marine Geology 383: 132–145
  18. Van Maren, D.S., Oost, A.P., Wang, Z.B. and Vos, P.C. 2016. The effect of land reclamations and sediment extraction on the suspended sediment concentration in the Ems Estuary. Marine Geology 376: 147–157
  19. Sottolichio, A. and Castaing, P. 1999. A synthesis on seasonal dynamics of highly concentrated structures in the Gironde estuary. Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Earth Planet. Sci. 329: 795–800
  20. Jalon-Rojas, I., Schmidt, S., Sottolichio, A. and Bertier, C. 2016. Tracking the turbidity maximumzone in the Loire Estuary (France)based on a long-term, high-resolution and high-frequency monitoring network. Continental Shelf Research 117: 1–11
  21. Pritchard, M. and Green, M. 2017. Trapping and episodic flushing of suspended sediment from a tidal river. Continental Shelf Research 143: 286–294
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