Property:Definition

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A
Species that were reported at some time to be present but were not recorded subsequently are reported to be ‘Absent’.  +
Abundance and population trends of species populations have been recorded where this information was available.  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Occupying the ocean floor from ca 4000 - 6000 m depth. Usually a more or less flat plain (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Overlays the plains of the major ocean basins with a lower boundary of ca 6000 m.  +
Other structures such as palps, tentacles or a radiolar crown ("grooved palps"). There are forms of single pair of grooved palps nearly always attached dorsally or near the junction of the prostomium and peristomium, or multiple grooved palps sometimes forming a crown. Dorso lateral ciliated folds in the roof of the buccal cavity may be present in some polychaetes.  +
An organism that constructs reefs or raised beds of accreted materials, e.g. bound sand in ''Sabellaria'' spp.  +
Crawling larval stage of some hydoids (amend)  +
The reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.  +
Attached or stuck to adult but not held in specialised appendage / receptacle  +
Eggs are placed or retained within the parents burrow  +
Where the species physically alters the nature of the strata/habitat.  +
Age recorded in days, months, years.  +
An organism that constructs reefs and raised beds due to aggregation of large numbers of individuals via permanent or semi-permanent attachment e.g. mussels, oysters and ''Crepidula'' beds.  +
Constructs deep beds of calcareous algal nodules, e.g. maerl beds  +
Species introduced by man into places out of their natural range of distribution.  +
36-40 psu  +
10-<18 psu  +
3-<5 psu  +
25-<30 psu  +
The alternation of generations, in the life cycle of an organism, that exhibit different modes of reproduction; typically sexual (diploid) and asexual (haploid) phases. Also termed metagenesis (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (e.g. ''Daphnia'', some rotifers)  +
Where the species alters the nature of chemical or water cycles.  +
Where the species alters food web dynamics.  +
Sedentary or sessile predators, that wait for prey to come to them, and may or may not use a final pounce, traps or lures (e.g. sea anemones, large hydroids, spiders)  +
calcium carbonate that lacks a crystalline structure, or whose internal is so irregular that there is no characteristic external form. The term does not preclude the existence of any degree of order (Derived from Neuendorf et al. 2005)  +
A poriferan larva, composed of a hollow ball of cells, with one hemisphere ciliated (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Coastal salt water habitats with no surface connection to the sea.  +
E.g. ''Ceratium'' spp.  +
Having flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Breeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).  +
Breeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.  +
Reproduction via single cells /eggs that are derived by mitosis (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993) - amictic.  +
Swimming is effected one or more pairs of appendages (legs or paddles) e.g. the pleiopods of Isopod, Amphipod or Decapod crustaceans, or the legs of amphibious vertebrates.  +
Alien and potentially invasive species that have accidentally escaped from containment/ aquaculture facility into the wild.  +
Alien and potentially invasive species that have been intentionally introduced for aquaculture.  +
Where the species alters boat traffic or impedes ability of boats to navigate waterways.  +
a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, e.g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells.  +
Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.  +
Specialist - sea urchins  +
Traits that describe specialized limbs or appendages used to catch or process food items.  +
Haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs and diploid females from fertilized eggs (adapted from Lincoln 'et al.'', 1998).  +
Jointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).  +
E.g. wood, metal or concrete structures.  +
A free-swimming tadpole-like larva of ascidians, characterized by a head (bearing internal organs and adhesive papilla) and tail (with notochord and neural tube) (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Reproduction not involving the exchange of genetic material, amictic, individuals derived form a single parent (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006); not involving the fusion of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Attached to the sediment surface e.g. by mucilagenous sheath such as used by necklace shells, and opistobranchs  +
First free-swimming larval stage of the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a continuous and curving flagellated band (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Obligate self-fertilization (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) in which haploid eggs /gametes are produced by meiosis but diploidy is restored without fertilization.  +
Self-feeding. An organism capable of synthesizing complex organic substances from simple inorganic substrates (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
B
Use of a length of silk to be carried by the wind (e.g. spiders)  +
Occupying the ocean floor from ca 200 - 4000 m depth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Extends from ca 1000-2500 m.  +
e.g. birds / cephalopods  +
An organism that lives in large aggregations or beds (e.g. brittlestars, mussels, oysters, ''Crepidula'' etc, sea squirts)  +
Any stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay. (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999; MarLIN)  +
Pertaining to the sea bed, river bed or lake floor (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A zone of open water extending ca 100 m above the surface of the sea bed at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf.  +
30-36 psu  +
5-<10 psu  +
0.5-<3 psu  +
18-<25 psu  +
Breeds less frequently than every two years.  +
Breeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).  +
Breeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.  +
Where an introduction of a bio-control agent results in an unintentional introduction of an invasive species (which is carried directly on the bio-control agent itself or along with habitat material associated with the bio-control agent).  +
Where a species (i.e. a bio-control agent) introduced to control a pest, weed or invasive species becomes a problem itself.  +
Organisms whose activities that cause constant and random local sediment biomixing over short distances resulting in transport of sediment particles, analogous to molecular or eddy diffusion (from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012). Includes epifaunal biodiffusers e.g. fiddler crabs; surficial biodiffusers e.g. ''Echinocardium''; and gallery biodiffusers e.g. ''Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor''.  +
Habitat features created by living things  +
An elevated structure on the seabed built by calcareous or other concretion-forming organisms, or by chemical precipitation (Hiscock, 1996); for example by ''Modiolus modiolus'' or ''Sabellaria alveolata''  +
First of the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by a ciliary band and the presence of arm-like projections (Stachowitsch, 1992; Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Europe is home to more than 500 wild bird species. But at least 32 % of the EU's bird species are currently not in a good conservation status. The Birds Directive aims to protect all of the 500 wild bird species naturally occurring in the European Union.  +
194 species and sub-species are particularly threatened. Member States must designate Special Protection Areas (SPAs) for their survival and all migratory bird species.  +
82 bird species can be hunted. However, the hunting periods are limited and hunting is forbidden when birds are at their most vulnerable: during their return migration to nesting areas, reproduction and the raising of their chicks.  +
Overall, activities that directly threaten birds, such as their deliberate killing, capture or trade, or the destruction of their nests, are banned. With certain restrictions, Member States can allow some of these activities for 26 species listed here.  +
The directive provides for the sustainable management of hunting but Member States must outlaw all forms of non-selective and large scale killing of birds, especially the methods listed in this annex.  +
The directive promotes research to underpin the protection, management and use of all species of birds covered by the Directive, which are listed in this annex.  +
Mouth parts designed to grasp and macerate food before swallowing (e.g. most vertebrates)  +
Mouth parts designed to pierce outside of food or prey and feed on internal fluids or tissues  +
Characteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.  +
Two generations per year (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).  +
Organisms that live in 'I' or 'J' shaped burrows open at only one end where water is drawn through or diffuses out of the sediment e.g. ''Arenicola marina'' (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).  +
Build up or accumulation of sediment.  +
Maerl; twig-like unattached (free-living) calcareous red algae, often a mixture of species and including species which form a spiky cover on loose small stones - 'hedgehog stones'.  +
Traits relating to the form, shape and structure of the species  +
Overall shape of the individual or colony (modular forms)  +
A measurement of the size of the organism. Note - the measurement used to express body size varies within taxonomic groups. For example, some disciplines measure diameter, others carapace length, total body length or wing span. Also body size can vary with gender and life stage.  +
Maximum recorded linear body length (in millimetres) excluding appendages.  +
Species that have been intercepted at borders as a result of detection procedures.  +
The second the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by the appearance of three adhesive arms at the anterior end (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
0.5-<30 psu  +
Both gametes are expelled (spawned) from the confines of the adult body or tissues, into the external fluid medium (water/air)  +
Eggs retained by adult, usually in specialised cavity/appendage where the eggs develop to larval or juvenile stage  +
Feeding on parts of plants (e.g. shoots, leaves, twigs) or parts of other organisms (e.g. siphon nipping by fish). (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
The buccal cavity lacks obvious differentiation of the wall and it is not eversible. Some species if buccal cavity present at all, is only a transient larval structure and becomes completely occluded.  +
A form of asexual multiplication in which a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).  +
Balloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).  +
An organism that constructs permanent or semi-permanent burrows through physical excavation or chemical action.  +
Occupies or shares space in burrow constructed by other organisms.  +
An organism that moves through the substratum by burrowing or tunneling (e.g. earthworms, polychaetes).  +
Use of a length of byssus thread (e.g. micro-molluscs, juvenile molluscs) or mucus (e.g ''Nemertesia'' planulae) to be carried by water flow  +
C
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels or types of protection from over-exploitation.  +
Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants (see Article II, paragraph 1 of the Convention). They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial (see Article III), for instance for scientific research. In these exceptional cases, trade may take place provided it is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit (or re-export certificate). Article VII of the Convention provides for a number of exemptions to this general prohibition.  +
Appendix II lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled. It also includes so-called "look-alike species", i.e. species whose specimens in trade look like those of species listed for conservation reasons (see Article II, paragraph 2 of the Convention). International trade in specimens of Appendix-II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate. No import permit is necessary for these species under CITES (although a permit is needed in some countries that have taken stricter measures than CITES requires). Permits or certificates should only be granted if the relevant authorities are satisfied that certain conditions are met, above all that trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (See Article IV of the Convention)  +
Appendix III is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation (see Article II, paragraph 3, of the Convention). International trade in specimens of species listed in this Appendix is allowed only on presentation of the appropriate permits or certificates. (See Article V of the Convention)  +
An organism that constructs reefs or biogenic structures composed of the calcareous skeletons of individuals or colonies (e.g. corals)  +
Skeleton composed of calcareous spicules (sponges/echinoderms), plates, spines, bones or other structures  +
crystalline form of calcium carbonate, e. g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells and the skeletons of calcareous sponges.  +
Where a canal, by joining two bodies of water which were not originally naturally joined, becomes a conduit for invasive species migration to a new area/region.  +
Enlarged or swollen at the apex, with a ‘head’, clubbed (Prescott, 1969).  +
specialist - scaphopods  +
An organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat.  +
A hollow normally eroded in a cliff (or vertical rock) with the penetration being greater than the width of the entrance (Hiscock, 1996).  +
The surface or body part to which eggs are attached by the parent  +
specialist - chaetognaths  +
Forming chains of individuals  +
Common in OSPAR Region III  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
An organism that obtains metabolic energy from oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron (e.g. some micro-organisms) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
composed of chitin, a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. It is the chief polysaccharide in fungal cell walls and in the exoskeleton of arthropods (derived form Lawrence, 2005).  +
Special feeding cell of sponges  +
Swimming is effected by beating of cilia and or flagella; includes the fused cilia of Ctenophores.  +
The subzone of the rocky sublittoral below that dominated by algae (the infralittoral), and dominated by animals. No lower limit is defined, but species composition changes below about 40m to 80m depth, depending on depth of the seasonal thermocline. This subzone can be subdivided into the upper circalittoral where foliose algae are present and the lower circalittoral where they are not (see Hiscock, 1985). The term is also used by Glémarec (1973) to refer to two étages of the sediment benthos below the infralittoral: a "coastal circalittoral category with a eurythermal environment of weak seasonal amplitude (less than 10°C) varying slowly" and a "circalittoral category of the open sea with a stenothermal environment" (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Typically occurs below 50-70 metres away from the influence of wave action. Aphotic with animal communities in stable or stenothermal and stenohaline conditions. Open sea (Connor et al., 1997).  +
Latticed (Holmes, 1979).  +
e.g. Mammals  +
1) Sediment particles less than 0.004 mm in size (Wentworth, 1922). 2) A soft very fine-grained sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Number of eggs laid at one time - in organisms that may lay eggs in one or more batches.  +
1) Particle size 0.5 - 4 mm (Hiscock, 1996)  +
Sediments composed of gravel and sand; inc. gravel, gravelly sand and sandy gravel (Long, 2006)  +
64-256 mm. May be rounded or flat. Substrata that are predominantly cobbles.  +
Organisms that come together in large colonies (100 plus individuals) - often in the same area from season to season - usually for breeding purposes  +
Symbiosis (q.v.) in which one species derives benefit from a common food supply, whilst the other species is not adversely affected (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A species with is abundant or present at moderate or relatively moderate densities.  +
A species which is found in relatively moderate to high densities (accounts for non-discrete nature of abundance terms/parameters described here).  +
Early larval stage in siphonophores, composed of a floating colony with disc-shaped float, and consists of a hollow sphere with aboral thickening (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Cone with a half sphere (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006).  +
Cone shaped e.g. limpet-shaped, patelliform (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Where the species preys on native fauna or grazes on native flora.  +
Free swimming larval stage, typically with five sub-stages, characterized by excretion through maxillary glands, and progressive increase in number of body segments and posterior appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Deposition of sands formed by the breakdown to the skeletons of living organisms  +
Free-swimming, lecithotrophic larva of Bryozoa  +
An organism that moves across, up or down the substratum via movements of its legs, appendages or muscles (e.g. ''Carcinus'').  +
An organism that moves slowly or 'creeps' across the surface of the substratum  +
A narrow crack in hard substratum where penetration is deeper than the width at the entrance; a crevice is <10 mm wide at the entrance, while a fissure is >10 mm (Hiscock ,1996)  +
A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.  +
copepod / zooplankton specific??  +
Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that is solid or resistant to touch or pressure e.g. encrusting coralline algae or sea mats such as ''Umbonula littoralis''.  +
Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that yields to the touch or pressure e.g. the gelatinous colonies of ''Botryllus schlosseri'' or soft cushions of sponges such as ''Halichondria'' sp.  +
e.g bivalve molluscs  +
A mass or pillow of soft material.  +
Free-swimming spherical larva, composed of a simple gastrovascular system and short comb-rows; resembles typical adult ctenophore (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
With straight sides and a circular section (Thompson, 1995).  +
Free-swimming bryozoan larva, the body is triangular, compressed and enclosed in a bivalve shell (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Final lecithotrophic larval stage, characterized by bivalved carapace, compound eyes, prehensile antennules and thoraic appendages (cirri) (see Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
D
Seabirds/waders?  +
Where the species degrades marine infrastructures or archaeological sites.  +
A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, and a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.  +
Where floating rafts of man-made materials become vectors for an invasive species.  +
Living at or near the bottom of a sea or lake but having the capacity for active swimming (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Branching irregularly – similar to that of a root system (Prescott, 1969).  +
Description of an organism's relationship with other organisms  +
An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within or on the substratum (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Maximum recorded depth below chart datum (expressed in metres).  +
Maximum to minimum recorded depth (expressed as metres below chart datum).  +
The depth within the substratum at which the organism is found (max recorded in metres).  +
Species detected in invasion pathways for example in ballast water, or as a hull-fouling organism.  +
Species that have been recorded as present in the wild with no further information.  +
An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
The length of a straight line passing from side to side through the centre of a body or figure, especially a circle or sphere. Note: For diameter you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.  +
Description of dormant stage  +
Daily, pertaining to a 24 hour period.  +
Having parts arranged like fingers on a hand (Holmes, 1979).  +
A life cycle characterized by a diploid adult stage producing haploid gametes by meiosis, the zygote forming by fusion of a pair of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
seabird specific?  +
Development without a larval stage  +
Potential for dispersal provided by one or more larval/juvenile stages, recorded in m, km.  +
The distance over which the adult organism is able to roam, travel or disperse; the greatest potnetial or recorded distance. Does not acknowledge limitations due to geography, hydrography, or behavioural (territorial) constraints.  +
Fields and traits that describe the distribution of the species.  +
Seabird specific?  +
Second free-swimming larvae (after the auricularia) in the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a series of flagellated rings around a barrel-shaped body (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
A species which is very abundant or present at high densities or relatively high densities.  +
Double cone (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
Organisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically heads-up at the surface, and that ingest particles at the surface and egest them as faeces at depth in the sediment (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).  +
An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents (e.g. ''Aurelia'').  +
seabird, cetaceans?  +
E
Free-swimming larva of Echinoidea, distinguished by six pairs of arms, supported by skeletal rods (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Collection of traits relating to species ecology  +
Traits relating to how a species interacts with it's surrounding environment and other associated species.  +
Traits that describe an physiological and environmental tolerance of an organism  +
Parasitic on the outer surface of its host (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Description of where fertilized eggs are placed or held  +
Size (diameter) of macrogamete (egg or ovum) in µm, mm, cm.  +
for example the egg sacs of copepods - carried by adult  +
A measure of height above chart datum, recorded in metres  +
A marine inlet or harbour fully enclosed from the open sea except at the entrance, not normally open to the sea at two ends. The connection with the open sea is normally less restricted than is the case with lagoons (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Forms or resembles a crust over a substratum or other organisms  +
A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.  +
Parasitic within the tissues or organs of its host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A plant living within another plant (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
internal structure that supports the body of an organism  +
Living within the body of an animal (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Broad descriptors of the major environmental regions  +
Position relative to substratum or fluid medium (air/water).  +
Young, free-swimming medusa stage typically developing from attached scyphistoma or occasionally direct from a planula. Umbrella typically composed of eight, bifurcated arms (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Living on the surface of the seabed.  +
An animal living on the surface of the substratum.  +
A plant living on the surface of the substratum.  +
Living on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrata  +
The photic zone, includes the open ocean influenced by light.  The lower boundary is dependent on the depth of light penetration and is generally regarded extend to ca 200 m in depth.  +
An organism that moves over the surface of sediment or lives at the sediment / water interface.  +
Living on the surface of a living plant but not parasitic upon it.  +
Living on the exterior of a living animal but not parasitic upon it.  +
Species that have been subject to an eradication event and have been confirmed as eradicated.  +
Species that have been subject to an eradication event but have not been confirmed as eradicated.  +
Main visible parts of organism stand upright and above the surface of the substratum.  +
Species that have become established in their introduced range.  +
Species that have become established in their introduced range and are known to be increasing in abundance and expanding their range.  +
Species that have become established in their introduced range but are not known to be spreading aggressively.  +
Downstream part of a river where it widens to enter the sea; often with significant freshwater influence and predominantly comprising sediment habitats.  +
1) The region between the highest and lowest extent of the tide on the shore. 2) The shore zone between the lowest and highest seasonal water level in a lake (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Pharynx can be everted to engulf and/or seize food items  +
A rigid external structure that supports and/or protects the body of an organism and that is mainly completely secreted by the epidermis (derived from Lawrence 2005).  +
1) Coasts which face the prevailing wind but which have a degree of shelter because of extensive shallow areas offshore, offshore obstructions, or a restricted (less than 90°) window to open water. These sites are not generally exposed to large waves or regular swell. 2) Open coasts facing away from prevailing winds but with a long fetch, and where strong winds are frequent.  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Egg/sperm meet and fertilize externally to parental individuals, tissues or confines of their bodies, but within the fluid medium  +
A built-structure inhabited by an organism and essential to its survival, but not part of its body, composed of hardened (either rigid or flexible) secretions, with or without the addition of embedded particles, with those particles either selectively collected from the environment or passively becoming glued during formation (pers. comm. Read, G.).  +
A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.  +
A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.  +
Species that were present but have been declared extinct.  +
Open coastlines which face into the prevailing wind and receive both wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions such as islands or shallows for several thousand kilometres and where deep water is close to the shore (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).  +
Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch of no more than about 3 km.  +
F
The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistics and Information Branch (FIAS) collates world capture and aquaculture production statistics at either the species, genus, family or higher taxonomic levels in 2 346 statistical categories (2019 data release) referred to as species items. ASFIS list of species includes 12 771 species items selected according to their interest or relation to fisheries and aquaculture. For each species item stored in a record, codes (ISSCAAP group, taxonomic and 3-alpha) and taxonomic information (scientific name, author(s), family, and higher taxonomic classification) are provided. An English name is available for most of the records, and about one third of them have also a French and Spanish name. Information is also provided about the availability of fishery production statistics on the species item in the FAO databases.  +
Dense aggregation of animals that visually dominate the seabed or shore such as brittlestars (e.g. ''Ophiothrix fragilis'' ) or mussels (e.g. ''Mytilus edulis'').  +
Descriptors of types of unusual or unique types of substratum or habitat  +
Number of eggs reported produced per female per reproductive cycle.  +
Traits related to how an organism feeds, the food type and feeding method exhibited by a species  +
Description of the apparatus (mechanism) used to collect/capture food  +
A description of how the oganism gathers food, and from where  +
Description of the location of fertilization, whereby in animals/macroalgae a gametes are fertilized or in plants pollination occurs.  +
Specialist e.g. sea squirts  +
Slender and thread-like (Kozloff, 1996).  +
Particle size 0.063 - 0.5 mm (Hiscock, 1996)  +
This is where an invasive species is used as a bait resulting in its introduction into a new area/region.  +
Where in the process of stocking a fishery an associated invasive species is unintentionally introduced into a new area/region.  +
Where an invasive species is unintentionally introduced into a new area/region as a result of the movement of fishery related products or materials (ie: not the direct movement of fisheries stock).  +
Where an invasive species is intentionally introduced into a new area/region for the purpose of stocking/replenishing/establishing a fishery industry based on the invasive species.  +
A form of asexual multiplication involving division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).  +
Shaped like a fan, fanlike (Brusca, 1980).  +
Soft, limp, flabby (Brusca, 1980).  +
Flattened ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
An indication of how far an organism can bend/flex without breaking or suffering damage - High (>45°) / Low (10 – 45°) / None (<10°)  +
Seabirds/wader  +
A species which exhibits fluctuating densities (either undefined in the literature or otherwise not mentioned in the abundance terms/parameters described here).  +
An organism able to propel itself though the air e.g. using wings, such as winged insects, birds  +
Bearing leaves or leaf-like structures; having the appearance of a leaf.  +
Stealing food from other birds in flight  +
Description of the source of the organisms nurishment, i.e. what it feeds on  +
Seabirds/Wader  +
Seabirds/Wader  +
A dense stand of large plants in which the upper branches (trees) or laminae (macroalgae) overlap to form a canopy that shades the under story of flora and fauna.  +
An organism that forms a large area of close individuals forming a canopy (e.g. trees, large kelps).  +
1) Length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the posterior end of the middle caudal rays. This measurement is used instead of standard length for fishes on which it is difficult to ascertain the end of the vertebral column, and instead of total length in fish with stiff, forked tail, e.g., tuna. Mostly used in fishery biology and not in systematics. (FishBase) 2) Fork length (FL) refers to the length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the end of the middle caudal fin rays and is used in fishes in which it is difficult to tell where the vertebral column ends. (Wikipedia) 3) Fork length (FL) can be specified as:<ul><li>Maximum length: Size (in cm) of the largest male/unsexed or female specimen ever caught. (FishBase)<li>Common length: Size (in cm) at which male/unsexed or female specimen(s) are commonly caught or marketed. (FishBase)</ul>  +
Likely to break, or crack as a result of physical impact; brittle or friable.  +
A qualitative estimate of the susceptibility of a species to physical damage.  +
Free living - little modification  +
Eggs spawned into water column  +
<0.5 psu  +
Shaped like a funnel  +
G
Descriptors of the relative size of gametes  +
The mean period of time between reproduction by parent generation and the reproduction of the first filial generation (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998); recorded in years.  +
Where the species degrades native genetic resources (by hybridizing with native fauna/flora).  +
Specialist - e.g. planktivorous fish such as basking shark  +
Where the respiratory organs also power and/or provide a feeding apparatus (muco-cilliary feeding)  +
An organism that is able to glide through the air (e.g. using some form of membrane) but cannot propel itself through the air (e.g. flying fish)  +
Approximately spherical, ovoid or globular (Brusca, 1980).  +
Specialist larval form in some freshwater bivalves, characterized by a bivalve shell, with or with a pair of hooks, and a long adhesive thread or tentacle. It lives as a temporary parasite on the gills or fins of fish. In some species a modified glochidium is termed a 'lasidium' before attachment and a 'haustorium' after attachment (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Free-swimming four armed (lobed) ciliated larva of Platyhelminthes (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Having separate sexes/genders (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).  +
fibrous protein in the mesoglea of sea fans (gorgonians) which forms the stiff skeleton of the colony.  +
Tentacles that grab and grasp food items  +
Appendages bear grasping claws (chelae) - e.g. arthropods, crabs, scorpions  +
Vertebrate hands, feat, paws etc designed to grasp food items using claws, talons etc.  +
1) Particle size 4 -16 mm. 2) Clean stone or shell gravel including dead maerl (Hiscock, 1996) 3) >80% gravel (Long, 2006).  +
Mud with 5-30% gravel (see Long, 2006)  +
Sand (50-90%) with gravel (>5%) and mud (see Long, 2006)  +
Sand with 5-30% gravel (see Long 2006)  +
Feeding on herbage, algae or phytoplankton by consuming the whole plant or the surface growth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Generally mobile consumers of sessile prey (e.g. plants, hydroids) cropping exposed tissues usually without killing the whole individual or colony.  +
Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the surface of macroalgal fronds and blades (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).  +
Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from inorganic particles e.g. sand grains (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).  +
Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the substratum (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).  +
Living in groups or communities, growing in clusters (Thompson, 1995) - where the organisms actively seek out members of the same species as adult or larvae/juveniles for protection from the environment, predators or for breeding  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III  +
seabirds?  +
Deterministic growth or indeterminate growth resulting in single unitary individuals or modular (colonial) organisms.  +
(expressed as µm, mm, cm per day/month/year)  +
H
Traits that describe an organisms preferred habitat and its position within that habitat.  +
A general term to describe how the organism lives in or interacts with its habitat (adapted from BIOTIC, Bolam ''et al.'', 2013).  +
The Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC) ensures the conservation of a wide range of rare, threatened or endemic animal and plant species. Some 200 rare and characteristic habitat types are also targeted for conservation in their own right. All in all, over 1.000 animal and plant species, as well as 200 habitat types, listed in the directive's annexes are protected in various ways.  +
(needs a definition)  +
Annex II species (about 900): core areas of their habitat are designated as sites of Community importance (SCIs) and included in the Natura 2000 network. These sites must be managed in accordance with the ecological needs of the species.  +
(needs a definition)  +
Annex IV species (over 400, including many annex II species): a strict protection regime must be applied across their entire natural range within the EU, both within and outside Natura 2000 sites.  +
Annex V species (over 90): Member States must ensure that their exploitation and taking in the wild is compatible with maintaining them in a favourable conservation status.  +
(needs a definition)  +
Occupying the ocean floor at depths exceeding ca 6000 m. Usually in trenches and canyons of the abyssal zone. (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Open waters of deep oceanic trenches, from ca 6000 m and below.  +
Half cone (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
Half cone with flattened ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
Half parallelepiped (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
Half sphere (dome)  +
Both haploid and diploid forms, with gametophytes giving rise to haploid gametes, and sporophytes giving rise to haploid spores by meiosis  +
A life cycle in which meiosis occurs in the zygote to produce the haploid phase but in which only the zygote is diploid (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Hard substratum e.g. bedrock, concrete, boulders,cobbles and pebbles  +
Immobile hard substratum e.g. solid rock, concrete but including soft rocks, such as chalk.  +
Mobile hard substratum, e.g. cobbles, pebbles that are regularly moved by wave action.  +
Attached or stuck to hard substrata, e.g. dog whelk capsules  +
Height above the surface of the substratum of an individual or single modular colony. e.g a blade of seagrass, a seaweed thallus, projecting tube worm, upright sea pen etc.  +
An organism which only feeds on plants, including phytoplankton.  +
The haploid and diploid phases are different in size and body shape; the gametophyte is often diminutive (small to microscopic).  +
An organism that obtains nourishment from exogenous (external) organic material (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Calcite where more then 8wt.% CaCO3 is substituted by MgCO3.  +
An organism that provides food or shelter for another organisms, e.g. the inhabited symbiont. May be a definitive host infected by an adult stage or an intermediate host infected by life stages (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Bird/insect specific  +
Where the species impacts human health.  +
Skeletal support provided by hydrostatic pressure from a fluid filled cavity (e.g. the coelum) surrounded by muscles. Hydrostatic pressure provides skeletal support in sea anemones, jellyfish, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, and other groups.  +
>40 psu  +
Living above but close to the substratum (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
I
Provides taxonomic, conservation status, and distribution information on taxa that are facing a high risk of global extinction. http://www.iucnredlist.org/  +
Sea ice, icebergs and other ice-associated marine habitats.  +
Information on the impact of introduced and invasive marine species has been recorded. These include impacts on native species, their habitats and ecosystems, human health and activity, transmission of diseases, etc. Descriptive terms of impacts were standardized and listed in a look-up table. These terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).  +
Species that have been introduced and maintained in captivity or cultivated for example those species that are farmed in aquaculture or mariculture facilities.  +
Independant, individual organisms  +
This describes any situation in which an invasive species is "accidentally" set free in the wild from aquaria sources leading to its introduction into a new area/region.  +
This describes any situation in which an invasive species is intentionally planted or set free in the wild leading to its introduction into a new area/region.  +
Where the species affects the behaviour of native species.  +
Benthic animals which live within the seabed.  +
A subzone of the sublittoral in which upward-facing rocks are dominated by erect algae, typically kelps; it can be further subdivided into the upper and lower infralittoral (based on Hiscock, 1985). The term is also used by Glémarec (1973) to refer to areas (étages) with a eurythermal environment of great seasonal and also daily and tidal amplitude. 1) lower The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, supports scattered kelp plants (a kelp park) or from which kelps are absent altogether and the seabed is dominated by foliose red and brown algae. It may be difficult to distinguish the lower infralittoralwhere grazing pressure prevents the establishment of foliose algae. 2) upper The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hardsubstrata, is dominated by Laminariales forming a dense canopy, or kelp forest (based on Hiscock, 1985).  +
Specialist - modified siphon to capture prey  +
A symbiotic association in which one symbiont lives in close association with another, generally in the tube or burrow or actually within a body chamber of the host (Brusca, 1980).  +
Any intermoult stage in the development of an arthropod (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Liable to suffer minor damage, chips or cracks as result of physical impacts.  +
Fertilization (gametes meet) within the body (or body cavity or accessory organ) of the individual  +
Living within the system of cavities and channels formed by the spaces between grains in a sediment (interstitial space).  +
Terms and definitions used in the World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRIMS).  +
Country or sea area that is recorded as the known introduced range of the species.  +
Species whose presence is uncertain, maybe reported as present anecdotally but not confirmed.  +
specialist - sipunculans  +
Species that are known to be invasive- those species in whose cases evidence of impact has been recorded or which is spreading aggressively.  +
Terms used to describe 'Invasiveness' of species.  +
A species whose 'invasiveness' has not been specified in its introduced range. The species is known to be present and has been reported but there is no comment on its invasiveness.  +
Species whose invasiveness is uncertain.  +
Gametes similar in size, shape and behaviour, not differentiated into male or female (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Haploid and diploid phases morphologically identical  +
1) Breeding several times per lifetime. 2) Organisms that have repeated reproductive cycles (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
J
Swimming is effected by contraction of the body or body cavity to produce a 'jet' of water, e.g. medusae and cephalopods (from Barnes ''et al.'', 2006)  +
Organisms able to undertake a rapid jump or hop several times their own body length, using specialised limbs or appendages (e.g. sand hoppers, spring tails, grass hoppers etc)  +
Early adult life stage of an organism that shares the morphology and ecology of the adult but is not capable of reproduction.  +
K
composed of keratin, a fibrous protein rich cysteine constituent of intermediate filaments (keratin filaments), chief material in horn, hair, nails and the upper layer of skin (derived from Lawrence, 2005).  +
In which the female of one species steals the food reserves or prey of a female of another species, to feed her own progeny (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
L
Enclosed bodies of water, separated or partially separated from the sea by shingle, sand or sometimes rock and with a restricted exchange of water with the sea, yielding varying salinity regimes.  +
Lance shaped and usually elongate (Brusca, 1980).  +
>512 mm; likely to be stable (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Large colonies of indivduals cooperating for mutual benefit, made up of thousnads or more individuals, often with a dominant matriach, e.g. social incests , bees etc.  +
An independent, motile, developmental stage of an organism, that differs in morphology and ecology from the juvenile or adult stage, and undergoes a metamorphosis to become the juvenile or adult (adapted from Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Barnes <em>et al.</em>, 2006).  +
Description of how the larvae or juveniles develop into adults  +
Description of the period of time over which larval settlement occurs.  +
Duration of the larval stage recorded in days or months.  +
A description of the preferred substratum for larval settlement  +
A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.  +
Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).  +
The stages an organism passes through between the production of gametes by one generation and production of gametes by the next generation (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
life span/longevity, recorded in days, months, years.  +
Traits that describe the life history characteristics of an organism  +
Description of the larval and juvenile stages in the life cycle of an organism  +
Stone-boring; an organism that burrows into rock.  +
A species which is observed to have a patchy distribution in terms of being common only at some locations.  +
Three location types have been recorded to describe the native range and known introduced range of the species  +
Specialist - filter feeding organ e.g. brachiopods, phoronids, bryozoans  +
Where the species reduces aquaculture harvest or commercial/recreational gain.  +
Where the species degrades amenities associated with public/tourist sites.  +
Dominated by animals with no foliose algae but encrusting Rhodophycota patchy in grazed areas. The part of the circalittoral subzone on hard substrata below the maximum depth limit of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).  +
The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, supports scattered kelp plants (a kelp park) or from which kelps are absent altogether and the seabed is dominated by foliose red and brown algae. It may be difficult to distinguish the lower infralittoral where grazing pressure prevents the establishment of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).  +
The lower part of the shore only exposed (emersed) at the lowest part of the tide.  +
The bottom of the littoral fringe. In the UK, characterized by he ''Pelvetia/Porphyra'' belt with patchy ''Verrucaria maura'' and ''Fucus spiralis'' (on sheltered shores). ''Verrucaria mucosa'' present above the main barnacle population. May also include salt marsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter (Hiscock, 1996).  +
An organism that uses a lure to attract prey within range of its 'pounce' attack  +
M
Species that comprise indicators or components of indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/eu-coast-and-marine-policy/marine-strategy-framework-directive/index_en.htm), with emphasis on Descriptors 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6.  +
Macroalgal surfaces, such as kelps and fucoids.  +
Individual organisms with a mean body size between 2.0 and 200 mm.  +
Maerl beds formed by build up of maerl.  +
Species for which some management action including prevention has been recorded in its introduced range.  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Common in OSPAR Region II  +
30-40 psu (equals MNCR Full)  +
Bulky (Homes, 1979).  +
A dense mass which blankets the substratum.  +
Particle size 0.25-1mm (Hiscock, 1996)  +
Disk, bell or umbrella shaped and often gelatinous (Barnes et al., 1988).  +
Individual organisms with a mean body size larger than 200 mm.  +
Post larval stage of decapod Crustacea (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Individual organisms with a mean body size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm.  +
5-<18 psu (equals MNCR Low, <18 psu)  +
The upper aphotic zone and extends to a depth of ca 1000 m.  +
Second larval stage in decapod Crustacea; resembles the nauplius but with more appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Individual organisms with a mean body size smaller than 0.2 mm.  +
Barnacle - limpet dominated, sometimes mussels, with ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Ascophyllum nodosum. Mastocarpus stellatus'' and ''Palmaria palmata'' patchy in lower part. Usually quite a wide belt (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Periodic movement of organisms between alternative habitats e.g. between areas for reproduction and one or more areas of non-reproductive activity, or between areas of foraging and areas used for other activities. Most migrations occur at predictable intervals triggered by stimuli e.g. unfavourable conditions. NB: Movements that do not include an obligatory return journey are classified as dispersal (Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).  +
A type of polychaete larva characterized by numerous long flotation bristles (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Mixtures of a variety of sediment types, composed of pebble / gravel / sand / mud. This category includes muddy gravels, muddy sandy gravels, gravelly muds, and muddy gravelly sands.  +
Skeleton composed of a mixture of any of aragonite, calcite, high magnesium calcite or amorphous CaCO3  +
An organism that exhibts both autotrophy and heterotrophy  +
Capable of movement  +
Traits relating to the mode of life a species exhibits  +
Generally coasts facing away from prevailing winds and without a long fetch but where strong winds can be frequent.  +
1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.)  +
Organisms that grow by the repeated iteration of parts, e.g. the leaves, shoots and branches of a plant, the polyps of a coral or bryozoan. Modular organisms are almost always branched, though the connections between branches may separate or decay and the separated parts may in many cases then become physiologically independent (Begon ''et al.'', 2005).  +
A species which exists to the exclusion of all other species including dense mats or in 100% of survey counts.  +
Both male and female reproductive organs in a single individual (animals) or flower (plants) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Resembling a crescent moon (see Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
Traits that describes specialized mouth parts  +
Traits relating to the movement of the species  +
Secretion of a simple or complex mucus mesh to filter food particles from water column (e.g polychaetes ''Chaetopterus'' and larvaceans.  +
1) Particle size <0.063 mm (silt / clay fraction) (Hiscock, 1996) 2) >90% mud (Long, 2006)  +
Mud and sandy muds where mud is the major fraction (see Long, 2006)  +
Gravel (30-80%) with mud (see Long, 2006)  +
Sand (50-90%) with mud (see Long, 2006)  +
Gravel (30-80%) with mud and sand (see Long, 2006)  +
The free-swimming eight armed (lobed) ciliated larva of Platyhelminthes (see Rupert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Many generations per year (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).  +
Swimming is effected by muscular contractions along the length of the body, which may be aided by body protrusions or structures (e.g. parapodia, fins).  +
The proboscis has thickened, strongly muscular walls and can be retracted into a sheath. In other cases the pharynx is partially retracted and partially inverted. The mouth proper is located at the tip of the pharynx when fully everted. While some taxa have a jaw-less proboscis, others have jaws present as a bilaterally arranged pair, as one or two dorso-ventrally arranged pairs or as two pairs forming a cross.  +
A symbiosis in which both organisms benefit; frequently a relationship of complete dependence. (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (cf.symbiosis, commensalism, parasite).  +
N
Species that is native to the country or sea area.  +
Species that is native and endemic to a country or sea area i.e. a species that is unique to a location or habitat.  +
Species that is native to an area but is not endemic to it i.e. a species that has a wide native range.  +
Country or sea area which is the native range of the species.  +
Where an invasive species migrates from a known introduced location to a new area/region using a natural mode/mechanism of dispersal; as the original location is part of its introduced range this pathway is included here.  +
Free-swimming larva, with a characteristic triangular shape, rostral horns in some, three pairs of appendages, and sometimes a nauplia eye. The number of nauplius stages varies between groups (see Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.  +
A polychaete larval stage where the first set of chaetal bundles and parapodia develop, although the ciliary girdle remains for swimming (see Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Active swimming organisms that live in the water column and are able to move independently of the water mass (adapted from Lincoln <i>et al.</i>, 1998).  +
Water column overlying the continental shelf; surface to ca 200m depth.  +
Living on or under the surface film of open water.  +
Eggs are laid and abandoned by adult  +
Offspring are abandoned by the adult  +
Remaining within the same area (from Lincoln ''et al.'',1998).  +
Incapable of self-fertilization, due to physical or temporal separation of gametes, and/or self-incompatability genes  +
component that keeps the agglutinated particles of the non-massive skeleton together.  +
small and individual structural elements that function as supporting structure/enclosure, e.g. spicules in sponges.  +
Independent without a defined territory  +
Non-feeding life stages (e.g. lecithotroph)  +
Species that has not demonstrated any invasive traits in its introduced range.  +
A taxon is Not Evaluated when it has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.  +
O
The common indicators agreed by OSPAR for assessing the status of biodiversity in the North-East Atlantic cover marine mammals, seabirds, fish communities, seafloor habitats, pelagic habitats, non-indigenous species and food webs. The biodiversity common indicators contributed assessments of the status biodiversity in the North-East Atlantic to the OSPAR Intermediate Assessment 2017. The assessments are published in the OSPAR Assessment Portal. The indicators are based on information from monitoring programmes described in the Coordinated Environment Monitoring Programme (CEMP). The programmes are described in the Appendices to the CEMP Agreement. Detailed descriptions, including method descriptions for the indicator calculations, are included in the CEMP Guideline Agreements.  +
The OSPAR Biological Diversity and Ecosystems Strategy sets out that the OSPAR Commission will assess which species and habitats need to be protected. This OSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and Habitats has been developed to fulfil this commitment. It is based upon nominations by Contracting Parties and observers to the Commission of species and habitats that they consider to be priorities for protection.  +
Region I is the most northerly OSPAR region, characterised by its harsh climate and ice coverage although the ecosystems of this region are still rich. In spite of its low population density, human activities such as fishing and offshore petroleum production remain significant.  +
The Greater North Sea is one of the busiest maritime areas. Offshore activities related to the exploitation of oil and gas reserves, and maritime traffic are very important. Two of the world's largest ports are situated on the North Sea coast, and the coastal zone is used intensively for recreation.  +
The Celtic Seas region contains wide variations in coastal topography, from fjordic sea lochs, to sand dunes, bays, estuaries and numerous sandy beaches. The large range of habitats in the region supports a diverse fish fauna. Although traditional maritime activities, such as fishing, take place in the Celtic Seas, there is ongoing development of tourism.  +
The bottom topography of Region IV and coastlines are highly diversified, including the continental shelf and slope and parts of the abyssal plain. Ecosystems in Region IV are very rich, support a rich fish fauna and have a particular importance for migratory birds. Main human activities in Region IV are fishing, maritime transport and tourism.  +
Region V represents the deep waters of the North-East Atlantic extending across the abyssal plain and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and including many seamounts. There have been recent discoveries of a number of different fragile deep-sea habitats (such as hydrothermal vents, carbonate mounds, coral gardens and sponge communities). Human population in the region is restricted to the Azores Archipelago. The main human activities are fishing and maritime transport.  +
Terms used to describe 'Occurrence' of species.  +
Species which may be listed as alien or introduced but whose occurrence has not been specified.  +
Open waters beyond the continental shelf.  +
Species that are demonstrating aggressive spread and there is concern about its spread OR species where some concern has been recorded- this may be due to known records of its invasiveness and impacts in other areas of their known introduced range.  +
Seabed beyond three miles (5 km) from the shore.  +
0.5-<5 psu (included under MNCR Low, <18 psu)  +
An organism which feeds on a mixed diet including plant and animal material (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Different life stages migrate into different habitats, or part of habitat (e.g. copepods) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Having large, non-motile eggs and small motile sperm (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Any part of the coast not within a marine inlet, strait or lagoon, including offshore rocks and small islands. This includes MNCR types; linear coast, islands / rocks and semi-enclosed coast.  +
Organisms that live in a 'U' or 'Y' shaped burrow where water is drawn through the burrow (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).  +
Free-swimming larvae of Ophiuroidea, distinguished by four pairs of arms supported by skeletal rods (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Specialist - modified tube feet in holothurians  +
(1) derived from, or showing the properties of a living organism; (2) containing carbon, applied to molecules.  +
Terms used to describe the 'Origin' of species.  +
Species whose biological status is uncertain i.e. it is uncertain if the species is native or alien to the location.  +
Species whose origins cannot be verified OR a species whose origin has not been specified in the source information.  +
Where the species has a known but undefined or uncertain impact.  +
The surface of other species, e.g. shells or carapace.  +
Where the species dominates or outcompetes native species for resources and/or space.  +
An ellipsoid on an elliptic base (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
An overhanging part of a rock formation. Typically the surface of the rock below the overhang receives some cover or shade from the overhang.  +
Egg laying; producing eggs that are laid and hatch externally (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Parents, guard or protect the eggs/clutch e.g. birds, some reptiles  +
Fully formed eggs are retained and hatched inside the maternal body and are released as live offspring (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998). No nutrition is derived from the mother.  +
P
Specialist - Protobranch molluscs  +
Appendages bear mucus laden papilae or tube feet (e.g. suspension feeding echinoderns, brittlestars, crinoids).  +
In geometry, a parallelepiped is a three-dimensional figure formed by six parallelograms (the term rhomboid is also sometimes used with this meaning)  +
An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependent on, another organism (termed the host) for completion of its life cycle and which is detrimental to the host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependant on another living organism, for completion of its life cycle, and which is detrimental to the host to a lesser or greater extent.  +
An organism intermediate between a parasite and a predator; e.g. hymenopterans where the larvae feed within the tissue of a living host, leading to the death of the host (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A poriferan larva composed of a ciliated ball of cells (blastula), with a brief swimming phase (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Catching food on a filter held into flowing water (e.g. hydroids, sea fans, sea pens), or collecting the 'rain' of detritus on sticky apparatus other than a filter (e.g. Cucumaria frondosa, proboscis of echinurans) (MarLIN; Hiscock et al. 1999).  +
Movement dependent on wind or water currents  +
Where the species is a pathogen/parasite of native species or carrier of a pathogen/parasite which infects/parasitizes native species.  +