Difference between revisions of "GIFS Activity 2.3 Fishing activity past and present"

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Latest revision as of 12:49, 11 October 2019

Fishing activity past and present

Introduction

Coastal or inshore waters play a major role for vital processes in the life cycle of fishing resources: many hatcheries, nurseries, and spawning areas of fish and invertebrate species are located in coastal zones and estuaries. In this sense, the European Commission has repeatedly expressed its concerns for the protection of the coastal or inshore fisheries within the 12 miles zone, at regular intervals. The coastal zones of all fishing nations have played a role as stable and continuous provider of food, resources and employment. In times of war and crisis, the coastal waters were the main source of fishing resources. As an example, the small strip of coastal waters has provided > 20% of all landings over the last century in the Belgian sea fisheries, and even 50% of all pelagic species and >60% of all molluscs and crustaceans. On average >1000kg/ha was provided from the coastal waters, whereas the southern North Sea (the second most important fishing area for Belgian fleet) has provided 100kg/ha on average. The role and importance of coastal or inshore waters (+/- 12 nm) in the livelihoods and socio-cultural development of our coastal communities is simply undeniable.

The Regulation of the new Common Fisheries Policy ((EU) No 1380/2013) entered into force in December 2013. The new CFP states that it should contribute to increased productivity and to a fair standard of living for the fisheries sector including small-scale fisheries. The CFP shall also promote coastal fishing activities, taking into account socio-economic aspects. In view of the precarious economic state of the fishing industry and the dependence of certain coastal communities on fishing, it is necessary to ensure the relative stability of fishing activities by allocating fishing opportunities among Member States, based on a predictable share of the stocks for each Member State.

Whereas the Green paper on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (22.4.2009 – COM(2009) 163) suggested arrangements for the small-scale segment by direct allocation of quotas/ effort/collective schemes, it also suggested that public funding could help the small-scale segment strengthen their economic viability and maintain their contribution to the life of coastal communities. The Green paper put forward the idea of differentiated management regimes as a way of introducing social objectives. SSF and large scale fisheries (LSF) differ enormously in their environmental, social and economic impacts, therefore the Green paper recommended one management regime for LSF with capacity adjustment and economic efficiency and one for SSF in coastal communities with a focus on social objectives. Specific decisions concerning small-scale fleets should be taken as close as possible to the coastal community. However in the new CFP this is not mentioned.

The restriction of fishing opportunities in the 12 nm zone, which reserves Member States’ inshore areas to their national fleets, have operated satisfactorily. Whereas the Green Paper (22.4.2009 – COM(2009) 163) questioned if this specific regime could be stepped up to a specific regime for small-scale fishing vessels in the 12 nm zone, the current CFP Regulation states that Member States should endeavour to give preferential access for small-scale, artisanal or coastal fishermen.

There’s a need to document the importance of inshore/small-scale/coastal fisheries in a quantitative manner (“to measure is to know”) in order to be able to define those social objectives: not only now (what are the characteristics of inshore fisheries today in terms of employment, food resource, economic value compared to overall fisheries) but also in the past (what is the potential for the future?). Historical fisheries datasets are of key importance for studies on long-term changes in fisheries activities, fish stocks, fisheries communities,… Recovering the historical context of fisheries is necessary e.g. to document the cultural heritage of our coastal societies and to tackle the issue of ‘shifting baselines’ in a marine ecology context for fishing. A historical perspective can shed light on fisheries-related socio-cultural, economical and ecological changes over time e.g. how did scale enlargement and intensification throughout the 20th century affect fisheries? It can provide the reference(s) for setting baselines and goals for sustainable management.

The definitions of IF as used in the GIFS project and in this report are:

  • United Kingdom: Vessels under 10m, operating in coastal waters typically out to 6 nautical miles (nm), but can be up to 12 nautical miles (nm), and to which the inshore management regime applies;
  • France: Petite pêche côtière is fishing practised by means of boats of which the LOA is <12m, not using towed gear and of which the time at sea/ time out of harbour does not exceed 24 hours;
  • Belgium: All fishing vessels that have an engine power of 221 kW or less, including any additional power and a tonnage of no more than 70 GT, according to the "Official list of Belgian fishing vessels", as maintained by the Department of Maritime Transport of the Federal Public Service Mobility and Transport, and that undertake trips with a maximum period determined by the Minister (today being 48 hours) with start and end in a Belgian port; It is important to note that, although this IF is allowed to fish outside the 12 nm, for the larger fleet component it is explicitly prohibited to fish within the 12 nm, reserving the territorial sea for the coastal fleet.
  • The Netherlands: Fishing within the 12nm zone with ships <24m LOA and with a maximum capacity of 300 HP (=221 kW).

As definitions vary between GIFS partner regions and there is a need for comparisons across the GIFS data, a more general definition has been agreed for this purpose for Inshore Fisheries: Vessels operating within 12 miles of the coast. In this respect, a clear link with the spatial use of the marine waters is included in the definition.

Objectives


There have been ongoing initiatives to catalogue, quality control, permanently store and/or redistribute historical data of formal and centralized reports on sea fisheries in the eligible area [1][2][3][4]. The main aim of this activity is to draw further on and broaden existing initiatives to provide a longer term perspective on the current and historical importance of inshore fisheries to coastal communities in the eligible area of the southern North Sea and Channel in terms of volume of landings, economic value and direct employment and their relative importance in the sector as a whole (including offshore fisheries).

Through an inventory of data sources and subsequent digitization, quality control, standardization and integration of historical data (depending on data availability and quality) this activity wants to:

  • Construct a common view of inshore fisheries and use a historical reference to underline its historical importance and/or future potential as a source of local and fresh food, employment, economic resource.
  • Map the importance of local diversity and trends in inshore fisheries within the region.

What specific questions do we want to answer in this activity?


  • How did direct employment in inshore fisheries change over time?
  • How did economic value, volume and composition of landings of inshore fisheries change over time? Which species were most landed by inshore fisheries? How are species of inshore fisheries valued?
  • How do the trends and issues above relate to those in the fisheries sector as a whole?
  • What are the differences/resemblances with different partner regions?
  • What information sources are available to document the historical relevance of inshore fisheries in the study area from the parameters described above? (metadata-inventory)

Method & Materials


Of particular use for this activity are datasets collected in a consistent way over a number of decades. However, historical time series are relatively scarce, especially for earlier periods. Moreover, if data exist, other problems often arise in terms of access, availability, data policy restrictions, inappropriate formats or insufficient reliability or quality. Different institutes have been contacted with a stock take on data-availability for inshore fisheries landings, value of landings and employment. This stock take contains questions concerning available datasets/publications, how far do these data go back in time, are these data in digital or paper format.

The institutions listed below, are key organisations in relation time-series on fisheries:

Belgium

Sea Fisheries Service (DVZ)
Institute for Agricultural and Sea Fisheries Research (ILVO)
State archives
Heritage Library Hendrik Conscience

The Netherlands

Central Statistics Office (CBS)
http://www.wageningenur.nl/nl/Expertises-Dienstverlening/Onderzoeksinstituten/imares.htm
WUR
Agricultural Economics Institute (LEI)
Library of Middelburg

United Kingdom

Marine Management Organisation (MMO)
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)
Inshore Fisheries Conservation Authorities (IFCA’s)

France

IFREMER + Bibliothèque La Pérouse
Bureau des statistiques des pêches et de l’aquaculture (BSPA)
Fisheries observatories Brittany

Also structured databases that allowed advanced querying on the basis of specific search terms (e.g. ‘fisheries statistics’) were screened for datasources on fisheries in Belgium, the Netherlands, France and UK (this is on-going work):

Results


For each of the identified data sources (paper format and/or digital for recent years) from the stock take, a detailed overview table with information on available parameters/variables for inshore fisheries (landings, value of landings or employment), unit of measurement, temporal coverage/resolution, spatial coverage/resolution, taxonomic and other resolutions, physical location of datasource, availability is available.

Table 1 and 2 give an overview of the datasources for the historical data in fig. 1 and 2 and provide all definitions of inshore fisheries used within these sources.


Table 1 Overview of datasources for historical data on inshore fisheries landings & value of landings and definitions of inshore fisheries used within these sources
Region Period Identified datasources Definitions for inshore fisheries used within available datasources
B 1929-2007 HiFidata All fisheries within the "Coastal waters"
NL 1933-1967 Series "Jaarcijfers visserij[5]" Coastal fisheries encompasses fisheries in the Wadden sea, Lauwerzee and Dollart, Zuidhollandse stromen en zeegaten, zeeuwse stromen
NL 1987-2011 CBS data (link 1, link 2, link 3, link 4 No distinction made between inshore and offshore fisheries, but it is possible to look at landings & value of landings of the four key inhore fisheries: mussels, cockles, oysters and shrimps (see also: http://www.vliz.be/imis/imis.php?module=ref&refid=218841 for description of inshore fisheries in the Netherlands)
UK 1907 - 1954 Sea Fisheries Statistical Tables [6] "Inshore landings include catches by second and third class vessels, and by first-class vessels, other than steam trawlers, which make voyages of not exceeding 72 hours duration” --> Based on the statistics here we will have an "inshore fisheries minimum: 2nd + 3rd class vessels" (underestimation because 1st class vessels < 72 hour trips are not taken into account) and "Inshore fisheries maximum: 2nd + 3rd class vessels + 1st class motor vessels" (overestimation because 1 class vessels > 72 hour trips are also taken into account)
UK 1955 - 1959 Sea Fisheries Statistical Tables "Inshore landings include catches by vessels under 40ft registered length, and by vessels, which make voyages of not exceeding 72 hours duration”
UK 1960 - 1964 Sea Fisheries Statistical Tables "Inshore" - all landings by vessels under 40 feet in length are so described”
UK 2000 -now MMO data Will have to be based on ICES Rectangles
FR 1895 - 1914 Statistique des pêches maritimes Defined as “pêche cotière, pêche à pied, pêche dans les étangs” (but not further specified)
FR 1915-1923 Statistique des pêches maritimes[7] Defined as "pêche côtière et pêche dans les étangs salés et dans la partie salée des canaux, fleuves ou rivières" (but not further specified)
FR 1998-now Bilan Annuel (OFIMER, France Agrimer)[8] Petite pêche : absence du port = 24 heures. Pêche cotière: 24 heures < absence du port = 96 heures
FR 2000-now Système d’Informations halieutiques Ifremer Coastal fishing : 75% of time operating in coastal waters  mainly < 12 m vessels. High-sea fishing: 75% of time operating out of coastal waters.


Table 2 Overview of datasources for historical data on inshore fisheries employment and definitions of inshore fisheries used within these sources
Region Period Identified datasources Definitions for inshore fisheries used within available datasources
B 1954 – 1970 Series “Jaarverslag over de evolutie van de vissersvloot” [9] Fisheries with vessel type I (< 80 Horsepower H.P) and II (80 – 120 HP)”
B 1971 – 1994 Series “Jaarverslag over de evolutie van de vissersvloot” Fisheries with vessel type I (< 35 Gross Tonnage G.T.)
B 1997 – 2012 Database of shipping (part fisheries) from the federal public service mobility and transport Fisheries with vessels < 221 Kilowatt KW, 70 G.T. and fishing within area I: within 25 miles from the Belgian Coast
NL 1933 - 1967 Series “Jaarcijfers visserij” Coastal fisheries encompasses fisheries in the Wadden sea, Lauwerzee and Dollart, Zuidhollandse stromen en zeegaten, zeeuwse stromen
NL 1998 - 2010 Visserij in cijfers (link 1 p. 24; link 2 p. 22)[10] No distinction made between inshore and offshore fisheries, but it is possible to look at employment of the key inhore fisheries: mussel culture, cockle fisheries, oyster fisheries (typically bound to < 12 nm limits) (see also: http://www.vliz.be/imis/imis.php?module=ref&refid=218841)
UK 2000 - now MMO data Will have to be based on ICES Rectangles
FR 1895 – 1911 Statistique des pêches maritimes Defined as “pêche cotière, pêche à pied, pêche dans les étangs” (but not further specified)
FR 1990 - now Bilan Annuel (France Agrimer), Institut national de la statistique et des etudes économique (INSEE) Petite pêche : absence du port = 24 heures. Pêche cotière: 24 heures < absence du port = 96 heures
Fig. 1 Overview of available historical data on inshore fisheries landings & value of landings
Fig. 2 Overview of available historical data on inshore fisheries employment











For what is already known right now, it will be possible for each country to benchmark figures on the three different parameters for recent years with at least one period in the past (except for employment in UK). This said, challenges in terms of compatibility of definitions for inshore fisheries in different partner countries and time periods must be taken into account. The idea is to buildi a regional view (Southern North Sea/English Channel) on inshore fisheries landings, value of landings and at least for recent years (post 2000) and possibly also for e.g. pre and post WWII (1933 – 1964).

Results by partner country


Belgium
The Netherlands (in progress)
France (in progress)
United Kingdom (in progress)

Acknowledgements


Wouter Knoops, Johan Vanbesien, Stefaan Hartleb - Federal public service mobility and transport
Peter Rogiest – Heritage Library Hendrik Conscience
M. Vandermaesen, F. Strubbe and L. Vandeweyer - State Archives Belgium
Hans Polet - Institute for Agricultural and Sea Fisheries Research (ILVO)
Eddy Tessens, Martine Velghe - Sea Fisheries department
Adriaan Rijnsdorp, Sieto Verver – IMARES
Ferry Lapré – CBS
Kees Taal - LEI
Georg Engelhard, Tina Kerby – CEFAS
Julie Urquhart – University of Greenwich, School of Science
Edwin Derriman – Cornwall IFCA
Will Wright – Kent & Essex IFCA
James Williscroft – MMO
Patrick Berthou – IFREMER
Myriam Robert – UBO
Marie Lesueur – Agrocampus Ouest

References


  1. Engelhard, G.H. (2005). Catalogue of Defra historical catch and effort charts: six decades of detailed spatial statistics for British fisheries. Science Series Technical Report, 128. CEFAS: Lowestoft. 42 pp.
  2. Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Debergh, H.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J. (2010). Fishing in the past: Historical data on sea fisheries landings in Belgium Mar. Policy 34(6): 1279-1289. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2010.05.006
  3. Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Debergh, H.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J. (2010). Historical marine fisheries data for Belgium: Data sources, data management and data integration related to the reconstruction of historical time-series of marine fisheries landings for Belgium. Fisheries Centre Working Paper Series, 2010-08. University of British Columbia: Vancouver. 69 pp
  4. Collectie van publicaties en andere bronnen in het kader van het project “een eeuw zeevisserij in België”
  5. Jaarcijfers visserij. Directie van de Visserijen: ’s Gravenhage
  6. Sea Fisheries Statistical Tables Archive
  7. Statistique des Pêches Maritimes. Secrétariat général de la Marine Marchande. Direction des Pêches Maritimes: Paris
  8. Bilan Annuel (France Agrimer)
  9. “Jaarverslag over de evolutie van de vissersvloot”
  10. LEI Periodiek Rapport. Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI): Den Haag
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